Feature Articles

Volume 1, Number 1

"Welcome to the Program" by Boris Pegan

"Inheritance of Coat Color In English Springer Spaniels" by Carol M. Roe, DVM

Home Brags Cabbage Patch Show Results


by Boris Pegan

"If the dog show exhibiting glorifies the external beauty of the English Springer Spaniel, and Obedience and tracking displays their mind and intelligence -Then hunting is their heart and soul"

As a breeder I believe that every breeder of a Sporting breed, at one point in their breeding process, must look at the breed standard for their breed and address their dogs original purpose. They must eventually understand that the standards were not written for show dogs, but for sporting dogs. With the English Springer Spaniel, the breed standard was written for and described a unique breed in their skills, instincts, looks, desires and conformation which is different from any other breed. The standard was written for a sporting breed that was, for years, bred for "a particular purpose" which wasn't "running around the show ring". How many Springer breeders read the breed standard and start questioning WHY- So? Why is a length of their neck equal to the length of their head? Why a Barrel chest? Why do they have webbed feet? Why-Why- Why? Without, at least, basic knowledge of the Springer in the field, it is practically impossible to understand and properly "interpret" the breed standard. It's not possible to understand what the correct type and conformation are all about. So you might as well forget about it and breed a Non-sporting breed, but please don't make the English Springer become one. Springers should be bred for their outstanding beauty, balance and desire. Once again, the English Springer Spaniel is not only the "perfect picture" in the show ring, but also a lovely dog, a real heart throbbing, bird flushing, water swimming and exciting hunting dog. You can take a "pet" owned, bench bred, English Springer to the dog show, or let them run loose in the field, and around the water and see what their heart enjoys doing better than another. Many of them will enjoy both, but most of them will choose to use their natural ability rather than beauty.

The English Springer Spaniel Field Trial Association (ESSFTA) developed the Working Certificate Test Program in 1960. The program was developed for the "bench" or "bench bred" English Springer Spaniels, their breeders and also simple pet owners. It gave them a chance for their "Sporting dog" to develop their natural abilities and instincts in the field. It was not meant to be for the "Field Trial" bred English Springer Spaniels. At the same time, other "Flushing Spaniel" Clubs had developed similar programs. The "Working Dog" better known as "WD" was started in 1960. To earn the 'WORKING DOG" title the dog must satisfactorily complete two parts of Working Test, one on land and one in water. For the Working Certificate Title, dogs do not compete against each other, but instead written rules. The titles are awarded by the parent club and can be added in the back of the dog's name in pedigrees or catalogues of independent Specialties.

The first two Working Certificate Tests in the ESSFTA were also held in 1960. On July 24, 1960, near Pittsburg, California, the first test was held and was judged by Lee Caya. It is not quite clear which club held the test, but there were four Champions that completed the test on that day:

CH. WAITEROCK FIREBOW sired by Ch. Waiterock Stronbow ex. Ch.Tahquitz Solita. This dog was born on August 8,1950 and was owned by Juanita Waite Howard.

• CH. WAITEROCK BOW KEY sired by Ch. Waiterock Firebow ex. Waiterock Triple. This dog was also owned by Juanita Waite Howard and was born on January 30, 1952.

• CH. WAITEROCK CROSSBOW sired by. Ch. Waiterock Firebow ex. Waiterock Sometime. This dog was born on the December 18,1957 and was owned by C. L. and Margery Brown.

• CH. WAITEROCK IMPRINT sired by. Ch. Waitrock Whistle ex Thirty Acres Dixie. This dog was born on May 16,1953 and was owned by Mr and Mrs Ted Curle.

There is an interesting notation that was added to the results of this test;

"Firebow is ten years old until someone picks up a gun and says "Let's Go Hunting". .. Crossbow won Best Of Breed at Vallejo Show on July 26, 1960 and took time out to pass his test for Working Certificate and got back in time to take 2nd in Group. After the water work in a muddy slough it took some hurried bathing and drying to get him back in the ring in time for the group- especially since we drove 65 miles each way to get to our training area where we have water."

The second Working Test was held at Fisherman's Alibi on Whidbey island, Greenbank in Washington. It was held by Puget Sound ESSA and judged by C.S. Cummis. There were two Champion Springers who completed the Working Dog title at this test:

• CH. ROYAL PRINCE OF REXFORD sired by. Ch. Royal Duke of Rexford ex Ch. Jil Of Rexford, owned by Mr and Mrs Don E. Case

• CH. GEIGER WINAWAY DUKE C.D. sired by Ch. Royal Squire Of Rexford ex. Raggedy Ann, owned by Robert Geiger.

Also at this test there was an eight-month-old puppy that completed the Working

Test Certificate and later became a Champion. It was CH. GEIGER'S CHIEF

GERONIMO sired by Ch. Gereigers Winaway Duke C.D. ex. Ch. Schwedekrest Lady

Pamela C.D., owned by Tillie Elsner Geiger.

There are many Clubs that currently support the program. They are as follows: Blue Grass ESS Association, English Cocker Spaniel Club Of America, English Cocker Spaniel Club Of San Diego, English Springer Spaniel Club Of Long Island, English Springer Spaniel Club Of Greater Des Moines, Maryland Sporting Association, Mason Dixon English Cocker Spaniel Club, Minnesota Hunting Spaniel association, Mt. Rainer Sporting Spaniel Association, Puget Sound English Springer Spaniel Association, Susquehanna Valley English Springer Spaniel Club and Wisconsin English Springer Spaniel Association.

The current "ESSFTA" Working Certificate Chairperson is Ms. Karen Lee of Halwedeen English Springer Spaniels in Tacoma, Washington. The other committee members are Mr.Harry Henriques, Ms. Karen Koopman and Ms. Henriette Schmidt.  

About two decades after establishing the Working Dog Certificate program many regional Bench Show Clubs began using the Working Dog Certificate Program for evaluating their own dogs for their natural abilities and desire in the field. The Maryland Sporting Dog Association was chartered in 1980 by George Bragow,SRJ, Smokie Hiles, Deborah Kirk and Dr. Mary B. Gibbs. This association today is of great importance to the hunting program.

In 1987, The American Kennel Club proposed their hunting program with their baseline based on the Working Dog Certificate Program. In this year The AKC contacted many Flushing Spaniel clubs with an explanation of their consideration to start their flushing Spaniel tests. If enough people became interested, The American Kennel Club would sanction and license this pilot program. Thanks to those early clubs who encouraged their membership and local breeders and single pet owners, the program was able to begin. If it wasn't for those clubs, The Pilot Program may have never succeeded. The veteran people like Ms. Smokie Hiles were the biggest influence on the Northeast during its formidable years. Ms. Smokie Hiles is a premiere field trial judge and she honestly believed that sporting breeds should be given a chance to develop their natural instincts and abilities, the things for which they were bred. She has volunteered almost every free weekend through the local sporting breed clubs to work with local show breeders and exhibitors in the field.

The great influence in developing the original program also came from Mrs. Mary Jo Meyers and Mr. Bill Meyers. They both got involved in working their bench bred Sporting dogs in the field since the early 1950's. It's interesting to know that their first show English Springer was a repeat breeding of CH. WAKEFIELDS BLACK KNIGHT, the first English Springer to win Best In Show at the Westminster Kennel Club dog show. Her next Springer was Ch. Frejax Royal Salute a great granddaughter from the classic Millilotus show line. The Meyers are expert hunters and sportsmen who insist on having an English Springer " that looked like the breed of the dog that was supposed to look like." In their opinion the field trail Springer breeders had sacrificed basic breed type for an atypical Spaniel which had primarily been developed for speed and ability essential for the success in their high stake field trails.

The first American Kennel Club Sanction B Hunting Test for Flushing Spaniels was held at Ted and Ann Eldridge's "Trivelda" Irish Setter Farm. It was held for the English Cocker Spaniel Club Of America in conjunction with Mason Dixon English Cocker Spaniel Club in Marshal, Virginia on November 21, 1987. On November 23, in 1988, the first Licensed Hunting Test was held at Forte Meade, Maryland and was sponsored by The Welsh Springer Spaniel Club Of America, with the organization of Ms. Mary Jo Meyers. On October 21, in 1989, The English Cocker Spaniel Club of America hosted their first licensed hunting test which again was hosted by Mason Dixon English Cocker Spaniel Club at the McKee Besher Wildlife Management area in Potomac-Maryland. It was the relentless dedication of show Spaniel breeders like SRJ Smokie Hiles, Theresa Schroeder, Lorraine MacLennan and Mary Jo Meyers who sponsored those first AKC hunting events.

After the first five years of Pilot Program many clubs and exhibitors suggested that the rules and regulations for the AKC hunting tests as originally proposed by the AKC be revised. Three to four names of each Flushing Spaniel Clubs were submitted from which the "Advisory Committee" was established.

In Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania on June 6 and 7, 1992 The American Kennel Club held meeting consisting of an "Advisory Committee", which were all parent club representatives along with three field representatives and Bob McKowen as the chair. Harry Henriques and Art Rodger represented The ESSFTA, Lorrain MacLennan for the English Cocker Spaniel Club Of America, Charlotte Stanton for The Clumber Spaniel Club Of America, Ruth Tabeka for the American Spaniel Club and Mary Jo Mayers for the Welsh Springer Spaniel Club Of America. This committee worked on final rules which we follow today.

The American Kennel Club hunting tests are non-competitive just as Working Dog Certificate tests. This gives every dog a chance to succeed in one of three levels. They are Junior Hunter (J.H.), Senior Hunter (S.H.) or Master Hunter (M.H.). Dog can be entered in either one of the levels. These hunting titles are awarded by the American Kennel Club and are listed in the back of dogs name and listed in AKC catalogues and all registration papers or AKC pedigree certificates.

The first Champion English Springer Spaniel to complete Junior Hunter title was "CH.LILLEY'S STORMY WEATHER WD.JH. "better known as "WENDY." She was sired by "Ch. Donahan's Mark Twain CD." and "Ch. Lilley's Conquette To Lilley's CD. WD." "Wendy" was owned by Ms. Bobbie Daniel Of "Darkover" English Springers. She completed her Junior Hunter title in 1989. "Wendy" won Veteran's bitch class at 1992 National and also in 1993 when she was nearly eleven years old. She was Best Of Opposite at the Puget Sound English Springer Spaniel Association's Summer Specialty from the Veteran bitch class. "WENDY" is the dam of six Champions and grand mother of five Champions. Her full brother from different litter was also a Junior Hunter as well. He is "CH. LILLEY'S MAGNUM SHOTGUN JH.".

Ms Julie Hogan of Pride 'N Joy Springers got involved in the hunting tests and the working program through her foundation dog "CH. CAREY'S PRIDE AND JOY UD. WD." known as "PRIDE" who was purchased in 1969. He was the inspiration of Ms. Julie Hogan's work in the field with her bench bred English Springers. "PRIDE'S" granddaughter "PRIDE'N JOY'S DUPLICATE CD, TD, WDX." earned her title in 1978. She was sired by "Ch. Felicia's Etching" and "Carey On Pride's Joy CD, TD." Ms. Julie Hogan's favorite bench bred working dog was "PRIDE 'N JOY'S FLAMING PENNANT, A/C CDX, A/C TDX, WDX." who was "Pride's" grandson sired by "Ch. El Taro's Scotch Flag" and "Carey On Pride's Joy CD, TD.'. Ms. Julie Hogan also earned Junior Hunter title with her "PRIDE'N JOY'S WINNING WISH CD, TD, WDX, JH."sired by "Ch. Chuzzlewitt's Courier CD." and "Pride 'N Joy's Duplicate CD, TD, WDX.". Another successful dog in Pride 'N Joy was Ms. Francie Nelson's bred 'FANFARE'S BRIGHT SALUTE CD, TD, WDX." Sired by "Ch. Canarch Cardinal Lancer" and "Canarch Contempletation". Currently Ms. Hogan has several field trial dogs which she got involved with while training her beloved "PRIDE'N JOY'S ODDS ON FAVOR, A/C CDX, WDX, SH" better known as "FAVOR". She was sired by "Ch. Chuzzlewitt's Courier CD." and "Geigers Pride 'N Joy", and she was another granddaughter of "Pride's". At six months of age "Favor" was weighted only 26 pounds and at fourteen and half she still was a 'puppy'.

In the Spring of 1960 Mrs Marjorie Rollins of Venetian Springers took Ms. Barbara Gates of Jubilee Springers to the field trial that was sponsored by English Springer Spaniel Club of Michigan. Marjorie helped by picking up the dead birds while Barbara helped in hospitality. At that time Marjorie still didn't own a Springer, but several months later, in June, her first Springer "GAY BEAUTIES VENUS" was bom. With the help of Dave Charlton and Tom Ford, Mrs. Rollins took her"VENETIAN TOUCH OF COPPER" to Des Moines tests in Iowa where COPPER got her first leg towards the Junior Hunter title, which she completed in six tests. The first time ever that COPPER saw a pheasant was on the day she completed her first leg towards the Junior Hunter title. COPPER is the dam of six Champions. She is sired by "AM.CAN. Ch. Venetian's Joie's Windwalker, Am/Can CD T.D" and "Venetian Protocol". She never completed her Championship due to injury as a puppy but she has seven points to her name. COPPER is the first Junior Hunter in Michigan. Marjorie is today working with several dogs in the hunting program. "CH. VENETIAN VAN GOUGH" sired by "Ch. Venetian Chalis" and "Ch. Venetian Godiva Chocolate" has one leg toward his junior Hunter title. Other Mrs. Rollin's dogs that are currently working in the field are "CH. VENETIAN BEE ATRICE"sired by "Ch. Venetian's Printer C.D". and "Venetian Mashbun Bee" and "VENETIAN MAXIMUM PROPHECY", with twelve points to date sired by "Ch. Venetian Maximum Affect" and 'Venetian Touch Of Copper J.H.".

Miss Henriette Schmidt of Hillcrest Springers gained the first hunting title on her own in 1971 with her "CH. HILLCREST HAPPY GO LUCKY CD. WD." who carried her hunting abilities on to her children and grand children. She finished from bred-by exhibitor class and was Best Of Opposite at the 1971 National Specialty. "HILLCREST FIREFALL FLICKER CDX. JH.SH." was major pointed from bred by exhibitor class. She was the first Spaniel to gain the AKC Junior Hunter title. "FLICKER'S" dam "HILLCREST HONORARIUM CD. JH" and her half sister "HILLCREST SPONTANIETY JH.", both pointed, were the first Springers that Miss Henriette Schmidt handled on her own to the AKC titles. "HILLCREST HONORARIUM CD. SH" was the first Miss. Schmidt's dog that she completely trained and handled to a title. "CH.HILLCREST NAMTN KO CR COLOURS CD. SH. MH" was the first Master Hunter for Hillcrest kennels. He is the first Champion English Springer Spaniel to complete Master Hunter title. Miss Henriette Schmidt is on Working Certificate committee for the English Springer Spaniel Field Trial Association.

Ms. Deborah Kirk from Kay 'N Dee kennels took her first Top Ten English Springers to the hunting test in 1982. They were "AM. CAN. BDA. CH. KAY 'N DEE'S GEOFFREY AM/CAN/BDA CD, W.D," the sire, and his son "AM. CAN. BDA. CH. KAY 'N DEE KING OF THE ROAD AM/CAN CD, AM CDX, WD". "GEOFFREY"was sired by "Ch. Salilyn's Classic" and "Ch. Judge's Pride Jennifer", and was the Top Ten English Springer Spaniel 1979, 1980 and 1982 as well as English Springer Spaniel Field Trial Association Top producing sire in 1982. His son "ROADY" was out of "Ch. Kay 'N Dee's Maginna's Gibson Girl" and he was Top Ten English Springer in 1984, 1985 and 1986 as well as Multiple all breed and Specialty Best In Show Winner. He is the only Springer with hunting title in recent history to win BOB at Westminster Kennel Club Show. In 1983 two other well known Kay 'N Dee dogs gained Working dog titles. They were "CH. KAVRIETT'S KAY 'N DEE DAMNATION CD. WD" owned by Jeannie Harkins and "CH. KAY ‘N DEE DREAM COME TRUE WD." owned by Theresa Schroeder. In 1984 Top Ten Winner for 1990 and 1991 "CH. KAY 'N DEE SPARTACUS" owned by Patty Lapinski and her daughter Jane Alston completed his Working Dog title being trained by Theresa Schroeder. "SPARKY" was sired by "Multi Ch. Jesters Jack in The Box" and "Ch. Kay 'N Dee's Gorgeous Hussy". In 1992 after retiring from his Specials show career "AM. CAN. BDA. CH. KAY 'N DEE TINTINNABULATION AM/ CAN CD. WD. WDX. JH.", Top Ten Winner for 1987, 1988, 1989 and 1990 completed his Working Dog title. At eleven years of age in 1996 he completed his Junior hunter title. "TINNY" was the very first Best In Show Springer in history to earn AKC hunting title. TINNY is older brother of SPARKY’S, he was multiple Specialty Best In Show and All Breed Best In Show Winner.

Presently Kay 'N Dee's fourth generation Top Ten Springer is "AM. CAN. CH. KAY 'N DEE INHERIT THE WIND WD. WDX. JH. SH." He is the first senior hunter English Springer Spaniel in history to be the, Specialty BIS Winner, Group Winner and Multiple Best In Show Puppy winner in Canada. He is also a Field Trial Best In Show winner at American Spaniel Club Winter Specialty in 1997 and 1998. "SHERMAN "is sired by "Ch. Maidenhead's Advocate" and "Kay ‘N Dee Crescendo's Ringside Chatter WD.". He is owned by Patrick Kirk and Boris Pegan. Miss Debbie Kirk and her mother Dr. Mary B. Gibbs chartered two very important clubs, The Maryland Sporting Dog Association in 1980 and in 1993 along with Mrs. Theresa Schroeder, The Susquehanna Valley English Spaniel Spaniel Club. There are over twenty Kay 'N Dee Springers with hunting titles and over thirty Kay 'N Dee bred Springers that are currently working in WD and AKC hunting programs.

Miss Theresa Schroeder of Wilspring Springers was one of the original judges for the AKC hunting test program. The first Springer she owned with a hunting title was "KAY 'N DEE ROAD WARRIOR WDX. JH" sired by "Ch. Kay 'N Dee King Of the Road" and "Ch. Brookside's Desire". "DONNIE" had twelve points to his name when, at a very young age, he was unable to finish his championship due to cancer. Miss Theresa Schroeder’s other successful bench bred hunting dog was "PATLO'S HIDDEN ASSET WDX. JH" who needs a major to finish an American Championship and has three Senior legs. "ANDREW" is sired by 'Ch. Kirwin's McLee's Weekend Lover" and "Kay 'N Dee Delightful Diana C.D.". "ANDREW'S" daughter is "CH.WILSPRING CHOCOLATE DROP WDX. JH. SH" who has two legs towards her Master hunter title. She was first in Field Trial bitch class at American Spaniel Club Specialty in 1997 and in Shooting bitch class at ESSFTA National in 1997.

For everyone interested in the AKC and the Working Dog test hunting programs, I would suggest the AKC's hunting test video and the book "HUP" written by James Spencer and published by Howell Books.

Please remember that the English Springer Spaniels are a Sporting breed and everyone who breeds a Sporting breed, whether they enjoy hunting or not, should be aware of what purposes for which these breeds are bred.


The champions with Junior Hunter title are:
















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Inheritance of Coat Color In English Springer Spaniels

By: Carol M. Roe, DVM


Each English Springer Spaniel produces its own coat color. Each also determines what potentialities for coat color it can transmit to its progeny by the action of at least nine different genes or gene parts. There are various amounts and types of interactions between these genes to determine the visible color type of each animal. In the basic coat color genes of dogs, each gene (or locus, plural loci) is considered as independent, or as not influencing the other loci. In simple Mendelian terms, each gene works as a pair, with two alleles determining the expression of that gene. In coat color genes, more than two alleles may occupy a single locus, referred to as multiple alleles. The allele which may mask or conceal other alleles is referred to as dominant, the ones that are masked as recessive. Sometimes this masking is incomplete, and simultaneous evidence of both alleles may be present. The only exceptions to the rules of dominance and recession are mutations. Mutations are extremely rare.


Summary of Genes

The genes identified for coat color in dogs are as follows:

1. The A series. These genes influence the relative amounts and location of dark (black or brown) pigment and of light (tan or yellow) pigment both in the individual hair and in the coat as a whole. There are at least three alleles for this locus. As allows the distribution of dark pigment over the whole body surface. In Springers this allele is present in solid colored as opposed to tri-colored dogs. The As allele is the dominant allele in this pair. The second allele is at which produces bicolor varieties which are described as tan points. This locus does not code for which color the dog will be, only if it will be solid or tri-colored. There is a questionable third allele, ay which restricts markedly the areas of dark pigment. The occurrence of this Allele in English Springers has not been clearly established. In conclusion for this pair of alleles, most Springers are AsAs, or solid marked dogs. Two atat dogs bred together will produce only atat or tri-colored puppies. A solid marked dog bred to a tri-color dog will produce Asat puppies who will appear solid marked, or may show incomplete dominance with faint tan points visible. Asat dogs are carriers for tri-color markings and will produce tri-color puppies when bred to other tri carriers or true tri-colors.

2. The B-b pair. The B gene produces black coat color. Its alternative and recessive form, b, allows the reduced degree of pigment formation observed in the liver series of dogs. Black English Springers may either be dominant black (BB) or blacks who carry for liver (Bb). Liver dogs are (bb). Two livers (bb) bred together will only produce livers (bb). A black bred to a liver may produce blacks and livers if the black parent is (Bb) or a liver carrier. If a black who is dominant black (BB) is bred to a liver, only black puppies will result, but they will be (Bb), or liver carriers. Likewise, two blacks bred together may produce livers if the parents both carry for liver (Bb).

3. The C series. There appear to be four alleles in this series. The only one which concerns Springers is C, the gene for full depth of pigmentation, providing absolute black or liver varieties. The other three alleles code for the chinchilla markings in Schnauzers and Elkhounds, the complete albino markings and the extreme color dilutions. All Springers are C, and there are no combinations or varieties.

4. The D-d pair. Dogs with the D gene are called "intensely" or "densely" pigmented. Again, all Springers have the D gene. Dogs who code for the d gene are more mildly color diluted, such as fawn or blue Dobermans and blue Great Danes.

5. The E series. There are several alleles in this series, but again the Springers are primarily concerned with one or two. The E allele allows for formation of black or brown pigment evenly over the whole coat. This is as opposed to the allele in which no dark pigment may be formed in the hair, leaving it a clear shade of red or yellow. Normal black or liver Springers are EE or Ee. An ee Springer Spaniel would be lemon or red, which is a disqualification for the show ring. Again, these two traits show dominance of E over e, so the lemons or reds are rare.

6. The G-g pair. The G gene causes changes of color such that a puppy born a uniform dark color would lighten with age. For example, some Poodles are born black and turn gray as they grow up. Springers have the gg alleles which means that their coats do not lighten with time. This is not the same as the natural graying associated with old age.

7. The M-m pair. This is the merle gene. Springers are mm meaning they do not produce merles.

8. The S series. There are at least four alleles. The S is responsible for solid colored dogs with either no white or a minute spot of white. The next allele is si named after the Irish spotted rat with a white muzzle, forehead, feet, tail tip, chest, belly, throat or neck. Next is the sp or piebald which varies from Irish type spotting to others with only 15-20% of their coat being pigmented. The fourth is sw which causes a pigmented spot in an otherwise white coat. Springers are listed as being sp or piebalds, with most of our dogs having the Irish type markings ranging to more open marked dogs. A few Springers will be sw or extremely open marked. The presence of the sw gene may increase the amount of white produced in a litter.

9. The T-t pair. Here the gene T, acting as a dominant, produces in white areas of the coat flecks or ticks of color, usually referred to as ticking. In general the behavior of this gene is fairly regular. Dogs who are tt should have clear-white, unticked areas. Just as in the B-b pair, T is dominant over t and so a ticked TT dog bred to an unticked dog tt will produce ticked dogs who carry the unticked allele Tt. These dogs when bred to an unticked dog may produce unticked or ticked dogs. There is speculation about an R gene which codes for roaning which is a more sever level of ticking. The roan gene is dominant over ticking and non-ticking both. Present information shows that ticking and roaning are a blend of one another.


In conclusion we will list the genetic makeup of a typical Springer Spaniel. The possible genes in this breed are:

As-at: Tri-colored or solid.

B-b: Black or liver.

C: Full pigment.

D: Intense pigment.

E-e: Liver vs. lemon or red.

g: Natural color does not lighten.

m: No merles.

sp-sw: Piebalds vs. extreme piebalds.

T-t: Ticked or roan vs unticked.


Our sample breeding will be an example of what could happen if a liver tri-colored male with ticking was bred to a solid, unticked black and white female:


DOG:	atat bb CC DD EE gg mm spsp Tt

BITCH:	AsAs BB CC DD EE gg mm spsp tt

PUPPY:	Asat Bb CC DD EE gg mm spsp Tt


The sample puppy is black and white, not a tri, but with faintly visible tan points, she carries the gene to produce liver puppies and tri-color puppies she is a piebald closely approximating the Irish markings like her parents, and she is heavily ticked.


Now you can sit down with your pedigrees and your dogs and work out their genetic makeup. And have a better understanding of why the puppies you produce look the way they do.

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